Use the links below to find the resources you need:
1 Electromagnetic radiation and atomic spectra
Electromagnetic radiation and atomic spectra, Electromagnetic waves The relationship c = f λ
DVD Spectroscope - Construction of a DVD spectroscope and analysis of spectra using tracker.
Update - The link above now also has a method to produce a spectroscope attachment for a cameraphone and allow it to be uploaded to the web and interpreted.
Dual nature of electromagnetic radiation — waves and particles The relationships E=hf and E=Lhf
Atomic emission: Evaluation of evidence for energy levels in atoms of elements
Flame Colours - A series of simple methods to carry out flame tests.
Atomic spectroscopy: Atomic emission spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy and how they are used to identify and quantify the elements present in a sample
2 Atomic orbitals electronic configurations and the Periodic Table
The four quantum numbers used to describe any electron within an atom. The shapes of s, p and d orbitals.
Electronic configuration including: aufbau principle, Hund's rule, Pauli exclusion principle
The Periodic Table is subdivided corresponding to electron configurations
3 Shapes of Molecules and Polyatomic Ions
VSEPR rules. Apply VSEPR rules to determine shapes of molecules and polyatomic ions
4 Transition metals
Electronic configuration of transition metal atoms and ions and the anomalies of the model explained
Oxidation numbers of transition metal ions. Using changes in oxidation number of transition metal ions to determine whether oxidation or reduction has occurred.
Oxidation States of Vanadium - an experiment to demonstrate all 4 oxidation states of vanadium.
Oxidation States of manganese - a demonstration of all the oxidation states of manganese from II to VII.
Colour change chameleon - An attractive reaction that passes through several of the different coloured oxidation states of manganese.
Iron Drops - a series of drop-scale reactions investigating a variety of reactions of Iron II and Iron III.
Ligands. Bonding of ligands in transition metal complexes, Classification of ligands, Coordination number, Naming complex ions according to IUPAC rules
Copper amino complexes - This practical involves the preparation of 2 isomers of copper and glycine and goes on to examine them by means of infra-red spectroscopy.
Ligands of copper complexes - In a series of reactions, different ligands displace each other from complexes with copper.
UV and visible absorption of transition metal complexes
Catalysis by transition metals
Catalyst at work (Demo) - Rochelle Salt and hydrogen peroxide, catalysed by cobalt schloride, shows the formation of a different coloured temporary intermediate.
Acids and bases
Ionic product of water and calculations of pH. pH = –log10 [H+], Kw = [H+] [OH-]
Bronsted-Lowry acids/bases: definitions, pH of salt solutions, Equilibria of the salt solutions
Strong and weak acids and bases. Properties of strong and weak acids and bases. the acid dissociation constant, Ka
Calculation of pH for a weak acid
Buffer solutions: Composition of a buffer, how buffers work and calculation of the pH of buffers pH = pKa–log10[acid/salt]
Indicators: Weak acid indicators. selection of an appropriate indicator for a particular reaction based on titration curves. Colour change of a weak acid indicators
Indicators - microscale - A series of small scale investigations into indicators.
Rainbow reaction (Demo) - Form a rainbow of colours to illustrate the pH scale with hydrochloric acid and sodium carbonate along the length of a burette.
Standard enthalpy of formation, definitions and relevant calculations. ΔHof = ΣΔHof (products) – ΣΔHof (reactants).
Entropy and prediction of value of entropy. Changes of entropy
Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics
Calculations in changes in standard entropy ΔSo = ΣΔSo(products) – ΣΔSo (reactants).
Free energy: The concept of free energy. ΔG = ΔH –TΔS. Calculation of standard free energy change for a reaction. ΔGº = Σ ΔGº(products) –ΣΔGº(reactants)
Applications of the concept of free energy Prediction of the feasibility of a chemical reaction under standard and non-standard conditions ΔGo = ΔHo – TΔSo
Determination of the order of a reaction (0,1,2,3) from experimental data and rate equations. Calculation of rate constants and units of k. rate = k[A]
Bleaching Blue Food Dye - An experiment using cheap reagents (blue food dye and bleach) to determine the rate constant and order of a bleaching reaction.
Reaction mechanisms. The rate determining step in a reaction. From the rate equation predict the rate determining step and possible mechanism.